1．What are some practical implications for managers who want to build business relationships in China?
In Chinese society，socio-emotional relationships are usually not cleanly separated from business ones. Thus，it is neither uncommon nor inappropriate to get business done through personal relationships. Conversely，relationships that begin as purely instrumental and task-oriented exchanges can be quickly overlaid with emotional elements. For foreign businessmen in China，understanding this aspect of Chinese networking can greatly reduce culture shock and frustration. For instance，Chinese business people may allow personal considerations to be factored into financial decisions and while that may be construed as corrupt in the eyes of the Westerners，that’s certainly not like this in the eyes of the Chinese people. The ability to understand and deal with such cultural differences is critical for business success in China.
In a Chinese business environment，the more well-connected a person is in a manager’s professional network is，the more likely the manager is to trust that he or she is reliable and competent. This form of trust is especially important because it facilitates cooperation and enhances efficiency during business transactions. Thus，when cultivating business relationships in China，a manager may want to know as many people in the Chinese counterpart’s network as possible. It is sufficient to get acquainted with the other people in this person’s network because that could improve your level of perceived trustworthiness.
2．What is an effective way to get work done for groups or organizations?
The first way is that everyone makes decisions and shares responsibilities and duties，and the second way is that giving one person central authority for a project or task.
I agree that in some situations the best way to accomplish a task is through teamwork-sharing responsibility，duties and decision making. However，in other situations，especially those where quick decisions are necessary or where individual experience is critical，the most effective means is for one individual to serve as leader and assume ultimate responsibility for completing the job.
A jury in a criminal trial is good example of a group in which shared decision-making，duties and responsibility is the most appropriate and effective way to get the job done. Each member of the jury is on equal footing with the others. While one person is appointed to head the jury，his or her function is to act as a facilitator，not as a leader. To place ultimate authority and responsibility on the facilitator would essentially be to appoint a judge，and to thereby defeat the very purpose of the jury system. By way of contrast，a trauma unit in a hospital is a case in which one individual should assume responsibility，delegate duties and make decisions. In trauma units，split-second decisions are inherently part of the daily routine，and it is generally easier for one person to make a quick decision than for a team to agree on how to proceed.
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